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 what is the internet

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عدد المساهمات : 11
تاريخ التسجيل : 19/09/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: jazaki allah   الأربعاء مارس 24, 2010 1:39 pm

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عدد المساهمات : 56
تاريخ التسجيل : 11/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: what is the internet   الجمعة مارس 19, 2010 2:25 pm

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network ofinterconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching usingthe standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consistsof millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents ofthe world wide web.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States tocreate the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 toregain a technological lead.[1][2] ARPA created the Information ProcessingTechnology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic GroundEnvironment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systemstogether for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying humanrevolution.
Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory atHarvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in informationtechnology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratoryand worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, wherehe bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first publicdemonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited LawrenceRoberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based thetechnology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for theU.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuitswitching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, thefirst node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called theARPANET, one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated tocreate the first international packet switched network, referred to as theInternational Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew fromEurope and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The firstTCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the UnitedStates' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university networkbackbone that would later become the NSFNet.
It was then followed by theopening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important, separatenetworks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet includeUsenet, BITNET and the various commercial and educational networks, such asX.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a largeprivately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in citiesthroughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This networkeventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol becameincreasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existingcommunication networks, especially the international X.25 IPSS network, allowedfor a great ease of growth. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a singleglobal TCP/IP network originated around thistime.

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what is the internet
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